Issue: Discriminatory laws and policies

Relevance and promising measurement approaches:

SDG 10 stresses the way in which inequalities intersect, requiring measurement of the extent to which laws discriminate on the basis of ethnicity, religion, caste, disability, sexual orientation and many other dimensions. Discriminatory laws and policies compound existing gender inequalities. In Myanmar, for example, laws that restrict interfaith marriage disenfranchise Rohingya ethnic minority women and limit their ability to access legal documents, inherit assets or pursue divorce or child custody.

A promising new measurement approach to monitor the elimination of discrimination against girls and women has been elaborated by a consortium including UN Women, SIGI and the WBL, for use in the official monitoring of SDG 5.1.1. The approach uses a questionnaire comprising 45 yes/no questions in four domains: overarching legal frameworks and public life; violence against women; employment and economic benefits; and marriage and family. A composite score will be calculated for each domain. These scores will reflect progress towards ending discrimination and achieving gender equality. Initial results have been validated using existing sources and national governments will submit indicators in the future.

Issue: Perceptions of discrimination or harassment (by sex)

Relevance and promising measurement approaches:

Subjective experiences of discrimination and bias can hamper women’s ability to realize their rights and undermine their productivity. A Pew research study, for example, found that “women are about 3 times as likely as men (19% vs 7%) to say their gender has made it harder for them to succeed at their job.”

The World Justice Project measures rule-of-law adherence in 113 countries based on more than 110,000 household and 3,000 expert surveys. The Project uses this considerable data collection to calculate a Rule of Law Index measuring performance across eight factors, one of which measures the protection of fundamental human rights firmly established under the Universal Declaration and closely related to rule of law.